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Title: Status of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria from selected countries or regions of the world

Date Published: 2005
Author/s: Harry K. Kaya, M.M. Aguillera, Alfred Alumai, Ho Yul Choo, Mayra de la Torre, András Fodor, Sudershan Ganguly, Selçuk HazÂr, Tamás Lakatos, Albert Pye, Michael Wilson, Satoshi Yamanaka, Huaiwan Yang, R.-U. Ehlers
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Affiliation: Department of Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA b Departamento de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Araras, SP, CP 153, CEP 13600-970, Brazil c Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA d Department of Applied Biology and Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National
University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea e CIAD, A. C., Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico f Department of Biochemistry, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary g Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India h Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Literature, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin 09010, Turkey i Research and Extension Centre for Fruit Growing, Ujfeherto, Hungary
j BioLogic, Willow Hill, PA 17271, USA
k University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK l SDS Biotech K.K., Tsukuba Research and Technology Center, Tsukuba City, Japan m Institute of Biological Control, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China n Institute for Phytopathology, Department for Biotechnology and Biological Control, University Kiel, 24223 Raisdorf, Germany
Keywords: Steinernema; Heterorhabditis; Xenorhabdus; Photorhabdus; Bacterial metabolites; Entomopathogenic nematode/bacterium complex; Commercial nematodes; Nematode diversity


Entomopathogenic nematode–bacterium complex research is being conducted in many parts of the world, and initially, a global
assessment of this research was the goal of this paper. However, this was deemed impossible because there are so many researchers in
many countries and regions working on these important biological control agents of soil pests. Accordingly, research activities from
selected countries or regions are presented. In North America and Europe, emphasis was placed on the status of commercially available
nematodes, whereas with other countries and regions, the emphasis was placed on the research activities with the nematode–bacterium
complexes. The one exception was with Japan where the development of commercial nematodes was emphasized. In China, Korea, and
India, research activities in the use of the nematode for controlling insect pests or soil plant pathogens was stressed. In Turkey where the
research is in its initial stages, we report on the Turkish nematodes and their associated bacteria. In Central America, initial attempts to
control insect pests and mass production research are reported, whereas in South America, the emphasis is on biological control of some
insect pests and on some basic research with some of their native nematodes. The research is still in its early stages or non-existent in most
African countries, but considerable research progress has been made in Egypt with these nematodes. Overall, the intensity of research varies by country or regions. In most cases, the research in developing countries shows that the emphasis is to demonstrate the usefulness of
the entomopathogenic nematodes or their symbiotic bacteria against various pests. The ultimate goal of these research activities is to use
them as biological control agents of soil pests