Item Details

Title: Studies Of Pigeonpea Insect Pests And Their Management In Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania And Uganda

Date Published: 1999
Author/s: Minja, E.M., Shanower, T.G., Songa, J.M., Ongara, W.T., Kawonga, P.J., Muiha, F.A., Myaka, S., Slumpa, H., Okurut-Akol, H. and Opio, C.,
Data publication:
Funding Agency : African Development Bank (ADB)
Copyright/patents/trade marks: AFRICAN CROP SCIENCE SOCIETY
Journal Publisher: African Crop Science Journal
Affiliation: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, P .O. Box 39063, Nairobi, Kenya
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, 502 324, India
2Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 340, Machakos, Kenya
3Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 14733, Nairobi, Kenya
4Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, P. O. Box 5748, Limbe, Malawi
5Salima Agricultural Development Division, P. O. Box 1, Salima, Malawi
Ilonga Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Ilonga, Kilosa, Tanzania
7Selian Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 6024, Arusha, Tanzania
8Serere Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute, P. O. Soroti, Uganda
Keywords: Distribution, Lepidoptera, pod fly, pod sucking bugs


Systematic surveys were conducted in farmers= fields in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda to determine the incidence,
distribution and damage levels due to insect pests of pigeonpea seeds. Three surveys were conducted in eastern Kenya, one in
1992 and two in 1995. Two surveys, one per country per year - were conducted in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda in 1995 and
1996. Key insect pests were pod sucking bugs (dominated by Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål), pod and seed boring Lepidoptera
(Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, Maruca vitrata (= testulalis) Geyer, Etiella zinkenella Treitschke), and pod fly (Melanagromyza
chalcosoma Spencer). Seed damage due to insect pests were 22, 15, 14, and 16% in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda,
respectively. Damage levels indicated that pod sucking bugs were more damaging in Malawi (caused 69% of total seed damage)
and Kenya (43%), while pod borers caused more damage in Tanzania (50%) and Uganda (54%). Pod fly caused more damage in
Kenya than in the other countries. Pod borer damage was high in early maturing crops and pod fly in late maturing crops, while pod
sucking bugs damage was high regardless of crop maturity period. Greater variations in seed damage were observed between
locations in Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania than in Uganda. Warm and dry locations had less seed damage than warm and humid,
cool and dry, or cool and humid locations in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. None of the farmers visited in Malawi, Tanzania, and
Uganda used conventional pesticides on pigeonpea in the field. Over 80% of these farmers used traditional methods in storage
pest management. In contrast, 35 and 53% of farmers in Kenya had used conventional pesticides on long-duration pigeonpea
genotypes in their fields