Published documentation of insect pests and pathogens associated with Alnus species in Africa is very scarce. We surveyed damaging insects and pathogens, and arthropod natural enemies on Alnus acuminata and A. ne-palensis in Kabale and Mbale districts, Uganda between March 1999 and August 2000 in order to identify the range and relative abundance of arthropods and pathogens associated with the Alnus species. Frequently encoun-tered damaging insects on the Alnus species included Apis mellifera, Apion globulipenne, a Systates sp. (Co-leoptera: Curculionidae), Phymateus viridipes, a Lobotrachelus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Coloborrtics corticina and some Chrysomelidae. Some species such as Aphis fabae, Parastictococcus multispinosus and a Cacopsylla sp. (Homoptera: Psyllidae) were observed feeding on other agroforestry tree species and/or crops although they generally occurred at low population intensities. Spiders and parasitic Hymenoptera were the most common natural enemies. Diseases were more severe in nurseries than in the field. Damping-off caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Septoria brown leaf spot and stem canker were the most serious diseases of Alnus. The array of damaging insects and pathogens indicates a potential danger to the cultivation of Alnus species in Uganda as adoption of the species for agroforestry continues to expand in the country. In view of the increasing demand for Alnus species for agroforestry in Uganda, regular pest monitoring and appropriate control strategies are nec-essary.