The NARO/DFID Client-Oriented Agricultural Research and Dissemination (COARD) Project is supporting demand-driven agricultural research and technology dissemination in the Teso and Lango farming systems of Eastern Uganda through the development of competitive agricultural technology funding systems. Participatory needs assessment studies have identified soil fertility as a concern in the Teso and Lango regions. However, a comprehensive understanding of these concerns and what interventions might be appropriate to address them was lacking. This study was carried out during 2001 to review existing information and undertake selected field studies in order to develop guidelines and recommendations for co-ordinated support to improved soil productivity in the Teso and Lango farming systems. The purpose of the study was to provide recommendations and guidelines for the development of improved soil management practices in E & N Uganda, informed by a review of current Government and non-Government interventions, and a field study of the farmers' current soil management practices and constraints, and how institutions influence these.